p.51: A footbridge designed by O. Niemeyer connects Rocinha, the largest favela in Rio de Janeiro, to a new sport facility.
8.2% of those with less than $10k/yr commute by walk
US Census reports that low-income people bike and walk to work far more than wealthy Americans. [nota 51]
Segregation can translate into social exclusion and incentivise the social
disadvantage of specific groups of people. [tradução livre nossa: segregação espacial – a segregação pode se traduzir em exclusão social e incentivar a desvantagem social de grupos específicos de pessoas]
Encouraging inclusiveness [tradução livre nossa: incentivo à inclusão]
Policies to improve the streetscape and promote walkability in car-centric neighbourhoods or suburban enclaves may help the most vulnerable communities to be less dependent on private transport, fostering social integration and mix.
Transport is generally conceived as an enabler of social connectivity, but it can be also the primary factor of social and class segregation at multiple levels. In many cities, minorities concentrate in outer areas due to affordable housing, where transportation is highly dependent on motor vehicle travel and car-dependency exacerbates inequality and lack of social mix. The investment in walkable, compact communities coupled with affordable housing creates less reliance on motor vehicle travel.
As per Jan Gehl’s studies in Life Between Buildings, urban design can “integrate or segregate”.[nota 49] Studies demonstrate that the presence of major roads may be a factor that changes people’s walking behaviour and social life. [nota 50] Traffic infrastructure can provoke physical and social segregation even within dense urban contexts, reducing the level of accessibility between neighbourhoods. Breaking down traffic speed, improving pedestrian connectivity and increasing the number of crossing facilities are all measures that can integrate and encourage the idea of inclusiveness.